Arequipa (ä´ r-k´ pä) is a city of 40,000 inhabitants. It is in southern Peru, 500 miles southeast of Lima. It is 107 miles from its seaport, the city of Mollendo. It has one railroad which is built across the Andes Mountains at a height of 14,660 feet. The city is the capital of one of the departments, or states, of southern Peru. The department produces cotton, sugar, cane, coffee, and minerals. It is the second largest city in the republic. The city was founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1540. Pizarro was a Spanish general who overpowered the native Incas of Peru. He started the city in the bed of a lake at the base of Monte Misti, 7,500 feet above the sea level. It is this snow-capped mountain you see towering in the background of the view. It rises 19,200 feet above the sea level. It is one of the famous volcanoes in the western world. The city has had many earthquakes, one of which in 1868 destroyed almost all the houses. Arequipa now contains a large cathedral, many churches, monasteries, convents, and a university. It has also many jewelry manufactories. It makes a specialty of producing a fabric woven of gold and silver threads. Gold, silver, and copper are plentifully mined near the city. Harvard University has built an observatory near Arequipa. This observatory is fitted with a high-power telescope so that observations can be made of the heavenly bodies. Because of the dryness and clearness of the air, due to lack of moisture and height, observations can be made that are impossible in most places in North America. Study the plaza. What about it is beautiful? Keystone ID: 21867 Note: All titles, descriptions, and location coordinates are from the original Keystone Slide documentation as supplied by the Keystone View Company. No text has been edited or changed.